Suggested Readings

A Teacher in the Living Room, from the KFF especially A Teacher in the Living Room.

U.B. Funkeys Development Story

Here is a compilation of the excellent material that was suggested regarding interaction design and children. I appreciate the generous outpouring of
useful information. Many thanks to everyone!!! Best regards, Brigit Fasolino Vucic

From Juan Pablo:

"I just finished publishing a 120 page article on interaction design and children that includes a section on guidelines:

Hourcade, J.P. (2008). Interaction Design and Children. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, 1(4), 277-392. "

The article is also available as a book on Amazon:

From Shuli Gilutz:

"I too used the Hanna et al article, and many of Sholly's writing (especially his theoretical models). You may find interesting study-case
examples from some of the Interaction Design & Children conference (IDC) papers, which are all on the ACM digital library.

Also, I was involved in a report on this topic that may be helpful.

Gilutz, S., Nielsen, J., (2002) Usability of Websites for Children: 70 design guidelines. Fremont, CA: Nielsen Norman Group

Two caveats: it's not an academic report - so lacks references and statistics, and also the full report costs money... however - many libraries
have it, and you can get a nice free summary here:"

From Libby Hanna:

"Thanks Amy and Sholly for the nice referral. I expanded on some of our earlier guidelines in a more recent chapter:
Designing electronic media for children. (2008) In R. Lueder and V. J. Berg Rice (Eds.), Ergonomics for Children: Designing products and places for
toddlers to teens. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. "

From Amy Bruckman:
"I agree that the Hanna et al article is excellent. Here's our review article:
Bruckman, Amy, Andrea Forte, and Alisa Bandlow. "HCI For Kids." Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. Second edition. Edited by Julie
Jacko and Andrew Sears. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007. "

From Sholly Fisch:
"Here's one of my favorite sources, which includes a concise and very useful discussion of guidelines for kid usability:
Hanna, L., Risden, K., Czerwinski, M., & Alexander, K.J. (1999). The role of usability research in designing children's computer products. In Druin,
A. (Ed.), The design of children's technology (pp. 3-26). San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, Inc.

I've also written a couple of related papers, although they focus more specifically on educational media and deal at least as much with design of
content as usability per se. I'll send you copies off-list, but here are the references for anyone else who might find them useful:

Fisch, S.M. (2004). Characteristics of effective materials for informal education: A cross-media comparison of television, magazines, and
interactive media. In M. Rabinowitz, F.C. Blumberg, & H.T. Everson (Eds.), The design of instruction and evaluation: Affordances of using media and
technology (pp. 3-18). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fisch, S.M. (2005, June). Making educational computer games "educational." Paper presented at the annual Interaction Design and Children conference,
Denver, CO.

(And if anyone else would like a copy of either paper, please let me know and I'll be happy to send them to you too.) "

From David Lumerman, Applications Engineer:
"I recently wrote an article on developing content for young children. You can read it at:"

From Ana Vitória Joly, Research Student, University of Brighton:

"There is also this report:

S. Chiasson, and C. Gutwin (2005) Design Principles for Children's Software, Technical Report HCI-TR-05-02, Computer Science Department,
University of Saskatchewan.

It is not specifically for 3 to 6 years old but it's an interesting catalogue of design principles for children. "

From Anne Deputter, who is completing her PHD in usability with kids:

"All the IDC conferences. They always have interesting subjects. Probably some that migtht interest you. See :

Reports from the Markle foundation. For example "Children and Interactive Media - Research Compendium Update. 2002". See :

Reports from the Kaiser Family Foundation. For example "Zero to Six:
Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers" . See :

Other resources :
Large, A., Beheshti, J., & Rahman, T. (2002). Design criteria for children's web portals: The users speak out. Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology, 53(2): 79-94.

Meyer, E. (1999). The coolness factor: Ten libraries listen to youth. American Libraries,, 30(10), Retrieved July 23, 2003:

Chen, C-H., Wu, F-G., Rau, P-L. P., and Hung, Y-H. (2004) Preferences of young children regarding interface layouts in child community
web sites. Interacting with Computers, Elsevier, Volume 16(2),

Sadler Takach, B. and Varnhagen, C. (2002) Partnering with Children to Develop Design Guidelines for an Interactive Encyclopedia.
In Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children (IDC'02)

Barendregt, W., Bekker, M.M., Bouwhuis, D.G. and Baauw, E. (2006) Identifying usability and fun problems in a computer game during first use
and after some practice, Int. J. of Human-Computer Studies (64), 830 -846.

Airey, S., et al. Rating Children's Enjoyment of Toys, Games and Media. Procs 3rd World Congress of
International Toy Research on Toys, Games and Media. (London. 2002)

Read, J.C., S.J. MacFarlane, and C. Casey. Endurability, Engagement and Expectations: Measuring Children's
Fun. Procs Interaction Design and Children. (Eindhoven: Shaker Publishing. 2002) 189 - 198.

Valkenburg, P. M., and Cantor, J. (2000). Children's likes and dislikes of entertainment programs. In D.
Zillmann and P. Vorderer (Eds), Media Entertainment: The Psychology of its Appeal (pp. 135-152). Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Druin, Allison (editor) (1999) : The design of children's technology. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. "